Vitamin B Supplementation, Homocysteine Levels, and
the Risk of Cerebrovascular Disease
A meta-analysis published in Neurology indicates that Vitamin B supplementation to lower homocysteine levels significantly reduces the incidence of stroke events.
Objective: To perform a meta-analysis on the effect of lowering homocysteine levels via B vitamin supplementation on cerebrovascular disease risk.
Methods: Using clinical trials published before August 2012 to assess stroke events, we used relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) to measure the association between B vitamin supplementation and endpoint events using a fixed-effects model and χ2 tests. We included 14 randomized controlled trials with 54,913 participants in this analysis.
Results: We observed a reduction in overall stroke events resulting from reduction in homocysteine levels following B vitamin supplementation (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.86–1.00; p = 0.04) but not in subgroups divided according to primary or secondary prevention measures, ischemic vs hemorrhagic stroke, or occurrence of fatal stroke.
There were beneficial effects in reducing stroke events in subgroups with ≥3 years follow-up time, and without background of cereal folate fortification or chronic kidney disease (CKD). Some trials that included CKD patients reported decreased glomerular filtration rate with B vitamin supplementation.
We conducted detailed subgroup analyses for cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) but did not find a significant benefit regarding intervention dose of vitamin B12 or baseline blood B12 concentration.
Stratified analysis for blood pressure and baseline participant medication use showed benefits with >130 mm Hg systolic blood pressure and lower antiplatelet drug use in reducing stroke risk.
Conclusions: B vitamin supplementation for homocysteine reduction significantly reduced stroke events, especially in subjects with certain characteristics who received appropriate intervention measures.
- Yan Ji, MD,
- Song Tan, MD,
- Yuming Xu, MD,
- Avinash Chandra, MD,
- Changhe Shi, MD,
- Bo Song, MD,
- Jie Qin, MD and
- Yuan Gao, MD
Vitamin B-12 Fact Sheet
The Top 10 Foods Highest In Vitamin B-12
A study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition reveals the not so surprising result that whole grains in the diet reduce disease risk factors. One wonders why our food policies and agricultural subsidies promote disease over good health.
Background: Studies of whole grain and chronic disease have often included bran-enriched foods and other ingredients that do not meet the current definition of whole grains. Therefore, we assessed the literature to test whether whole grains alone had benefits on these diseases.
Objective: The objective was to assess the contribution of bran or cereal fiber on the impact of whole grains on the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity and body weight measures, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in human studies as the basis for establishing an American Society for Nutrition (ASN) position on this subject.
Design: We performed a comprehensive PubMed search of human studies published from 1965 to December 2010.
Results: Most whole-grain studies included mixtures of whole grains and foods with ≥25% bran. Prospective studies consistently showed a reduced risk of T2D with high intakes of cereal fiber or mixtures of whole grains and bran. For body weight, a limited number of prospective studies on cereal fiber and whole grains reported small but significant reductions in weight gain. For CVD, studies found reduced risk with high intakes of cereal fiber or mixtures of whole grains and bran.
Conclusions: The ASN position, based on the current state of the science, is that consumption of foods rich in cereal fiber or mixtures of whole grains and bran is modestly associated with a reduced risk of obesity, T2D, and CVD. The data for whole grains alone are limited primarily because of varying definitions among epidemiologic studies of what, and how much, was included in that food category.
A good night’s sleep can increase the benefit of exercise, healthy diet, moderate alcohol consumption and non-smoking in their protection against cardiovascular disease (CVD), according to results of a large population follow-up study.(1)
Results showed that the combination of the four traditional healthy lifestyle habits was associated with a 57% lower risk of cardiovascular disease (fatal and non-fatal) and a 67% lower risk of fatal events.(2)
But, when “sufficient sleep” (defined as seven or more hours a night) was added to the other four lifestyle factors, the overall protective benefit was even further increased – and resulted in a 65% lower risk of composite CVD and a 83% lower risk of fatal events. (more…)
The Fats Of Life Revealed
The heart health benefits of omega-3-rich fish oil may be linked to its ability to favorably influence the variability in heart rates, says a meta-analysis of 15 studies. Read more at Nutraingredients.
Study Abstract: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition