From the Harvard Gazette:
Research Also Shows People Who Eat Nuts Weigh Less
According to the largest study of its kind, people who ate a daily handful of nuts were 20 percent less likely to die from any cause over a 30-year period than those who didn’t consume nuts, say scientists from the Harvard-affiliated Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and the Harvard School of Public Health.
Their report, published in the New England Journal of Medicine,contains further good news: The regular nut-eaters were found to be more slender than those who didn’t eat nuts, a finding that should alleviate fears that eating a lot of nuts will lead to overweight.
The report also looked at the protective effect on specific causes of death.
“The most obvious benefit was a reduction of 29 percent in deaths from heart disease — the major killer of people in America,” said Charles S. Fuchs, director of the Gastrointestinal Cancer Treatment Center at Dana-Farber, who is the senior author of the report and a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School.
“But we also saw a significant reduction — 11 percent — in the risk of dying from cancer,” added Fuchs, who is also affiliated with the Channing Division of Network Medicine at Brigham and Women’s.
Whether any specific type or types of nuts were crucial to the protective effect could not be determined. However, the reduction in mortality was similar both for peanuts (a legume, or ground nut) and for tree nuts — walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, macadamias, pecans, pistachios, and pine nuts.
Several previous studies had found an association between increasing nut consumption and a lower risk of diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, colon cancer, gallstones, and diverticulitis. Higher nut consumption also has been linked to reductions in cholesterol levels, oxidative stress, inflammation, adiposity, and insulin resistance. Some small studies have linked an increase of nuts in the diet to lower total mortality in specific populations. But no previous research studies had looked in such detail at various levels of nut consumption and their effects on overall mortality in a large population that was followed for more than 30 years.
For the new research, the scientists were able to tap databases from two well-known, ongoing observational studies that collect data on diet and other lifestyle factors and various health outcomes. The Nurses’ Health Study provided data on 76,464 women between 1980 and 2010, and the Health Professionals’ Follow-Up Study yielded data on 42,498 men from 1986 to 2010. Participants in the studies filled out detailed food questionnaires every two to four years. With each questionnaire, participants were asked to estimate how often they consumed nuts in a serving size of one ounce. A typical small packet of peanuts from a vending machine contains one ounce.
Sophisticated data analysis methods were used to rule out other factors that might have accounted for the mortality benefits. For example, the researchers found that individuals who ate more nuts were leaner, less likely to smoke, and more likely to exercise, use multivitamin supplements, consume more fruits and vegetables, and drink more alcohol. However, analysis was able to isolate the association between nuts and mortality independently of these other factors.
“In all these analyses, the more nuts people ate, the less likely they were to die over the 30-year follow-up period,” explained Ying Bao of Brigham and Women’s Hospital, first author of the report. Those who ate nuts less than once a week had a 7 percent reduction in mortality; once a week, 11 percent reduction; two to four times per week, 13 percent reduction; five to six times per week, 15 percent reduction; and seven or more times a week, a 20 percent reduction in death rate.
The authors noted that this large study cannot definitively prove cause and effect; nonetheless, the findings are strongly consistent with “a wealth of existing observational and clinical trial data to support health benefits of nut consumption on many chronic diseases.” In fact, based on previous studies, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration concluded in 2003 that eating 1½ ounces per day of most nuts “may reduce the risk of heart disease.”
The study was supported by National Institutes of Health and a research grant from the International Tree Nut Council Nutrition Research & Education Foundation.
Nuts For Nutrition
Nut Butter Primer
5 nutritious varieties & recipe ideas
February 27, 2013
For decades, consumers shunned the nut section of grocery stores, scared off by nuts’ high calorie and fat content. But ongoing research has revealed the truth about them. While nuts are high in fats, many of them contain good fats — the kind that actually help your body — in addition to a plentiful selection of vitamins and minerals.
So next time you find yourself heading for the chip aisle, stop in the nut section instead and pick up some of nature’s most versatile treats. Here, we showcase five healthy nut varieties we love.
An all-star nut, almonds offer a host of health benefits. Their potent combination of monounsaturated fats, vitamin E and magnesium lowers bad cholesterol, reduces the risk of heart disease and improves the flow of blood and oxygen throughout the body. Eat ‘em whole with the skins on for maximum effect.
Recipe riff: Incorporate chopped almonds (as well as other nuts of choice) when making homemade granola.
We’re going to overlook the fact that this misnamed food is actually a seed, not a nut. But like many nuts, pine nuts are high in heart-healthy fats, potassium and vitamin E. They’re also loaded with protein — some varieties clock in at 34% protein. As an added bonus, pine nuts serve as an appetite suppressant, making them a perfect mid-day snack.
Recipe riff: In a food processor, pulse pine nuts, olive oil, garlic, basil leaves and cheese to make a yummy basil pesto.
Research positions walnuts as the Holy Grail of nuts. They’re bursting with nutrients — including omega-3 fatty acids, copper, potassium, calcium and magnesium — and have been linked to lower cholesterol, healthy blood pressure, bone stability and reduced risk of cancer. You’ll benefit most from a walnut’s nutrients if you leave the skin on.
Recipe riff: Toast shelled walnuts; then combine with arugula, pears and your dressing of choice for a healthy, delicious salad.
These exotically named nuts hail from the Amazon, and like their more well-known counterparts, contain high levels of good fats, vitamin E and other nutrients. Brazil nuts also boast selenium, which can help prevent cancer, cirrhosis of the liver and coronary artery disease.
Recipe riff: Combine raw Brazil nuts, olive oil and a dash of salt; then roast in the oven for an easy snack.
Packed with antioxidants, these little green guys are known to reduce bad cholesterol and support heart health. Not to mention, they’re fun to shell and munch on for an afternoon treat.
Recipe riff: Combine finely chopped pistachios with panko to make a crust for baked salmon.
FOLSOM, Calif., Feb. 27, 2013 /PRNewswire/ — Recent research published online by the Journal of Nutrition, found an inverse relationship between walnut consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in two large prospective cohorts of U.S. women: the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and NHS II. The researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health followed 58,063 women (52–77 years) in NHS (1998–2008) and 79,893 women (35–52 years) in NHS II (1999–2009) without diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at baseline. They found two or more servings (1 serving= 28 grams) of walnuts per week to be associated with a 21% and 15% lower risk of incident type 2 diabetes before and after adjusting for body mass index (BMI) respectively.
Diabetes is estimated to affect 12.6 million women in the United States and 366 million people worldwide, and the numbers are expected to rise to approximately 552 million globally by 2030. Diet and lifestyle modifications are key components in fighting this epidemic, and recent evidence suggests that the type of fat rather than total fat intake plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Specifically, a higher level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), found significantly in walnuts, has been associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes.
“The findings here- the kind often seen with powerful pharmaceuticals- are robust, and remarkable.”
Compared with other nuts, which typically contain a high amount of monounsaturated fats, walnuts are unique because they are rich in PUFAs which may favorably influence insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes. Walnuts are different among nuts specifically in that they are uniquely comprised primarily of PUFAs and are the only nut with a significant amount of alpha-linolenic acid – the plant-based omega-3 fatty acid (2.5 grams of ALA per 1 ounce/ 28 gram serving).
Diabetes and obesity expert David Katz, MD considers walnuts to be a nutritious ingredient that should be a staple in the American diet. “Observational studies can’t prove cause and effect, but when associations are seen in large populations, and occur in a well established context- cause and effect may reliably be inferred,” states Dr. Katz. He continues, “The findings here- the kind often seen with powerful pharmaceuticals- are robust, and remarkable. They strongly indicate the importance of consuming whole foods, such as walnuts, in the fight against diabetes.”
Registered dietitian and certified diabetes educator Andrea Dunn believes this new research is good news especially considering walnuts are tasty and simple to include daily. “In this study two or more servings of walnuts per week seemed to make a difference and is so easy to incorporate,” says Dunn. She suggests adding walnuts to your morning oatmeal or yogurt, grabbing a handful as an afternoon snack or trying them as a coating for fish or as a topping to your vegetable stir-fry.
We’ll no doubt be seeing lots more recipes with walnuts after the latest news about the Mediterranean diet which features walnuts among other great foods.
For more industry information, health research and recipe ideas, visit www.walnuts.org
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About California Walnuts:
The California walnut industry is made up of more than 4,000 growers and more than 80 handlers. The growers and handlers are represented by two entities, the California Walnut Board (CWB) and the California Walnut Commission (CWC).
California Walnut Commission
The California Walnut Commission, established in 1987, is funded by mandatory assessments of the growers. The Commission is an agency of the State of California that works in concurrence with the Secretary of the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA). The CWC is mainly involved in health research and export market development activities.